page 1
page 2
page 3
page 4
page 5
page 6
page 7
page 8
page 9
page 10
page 11
page 12
page 13
page 14
page 15
page 16
page 17
page 18
page 19
page 20
page 21
page 22
page 23
page 24
page 25
page 26
page 27
page 28
page 29
page 30
page 31
page 32
page 33
page 34
page 35
page 36

history focus26eueuJuly/August 2017 | MicroscopyandAnalysisMike Marko has been very active within the Microscopy Society of America for many years, chairing numerous committees, organizing courses, and serving as President in 2016.Describing himself as 'an enthusiastic member' of MSA, he believes that the Society is the place to go to learn what's new in all fields of microscopy.However, he is also passionate about the history of the Society and microscopy, currently acting as Archivist for the organisation, collecting historical media and helping to preserve important equipment.Reflecting on the last 75 years of the MSA and microscopy, Marko highlights how the organisation was devoted to electron microscopy in its first fifty years.As he points out, the first series-produced, commercial TEM - the 1938 Siemens ÜM-100 - followed development work led by Ernst Ruska, for which he received a Nobel prize in 1985. However, Canadian expat, James Hillier, led the development of the first commercial TEM in the US, the 1940 RCA EMB.By the time of the first conference on electron microscopy, in 1942, in Chicago, around 30 TEMs were in use in the US. The Society was founded shortly afterwards as the "Electron Microscope Society of America",with most of the founders being associated with the Radio Corporation of America, RCA.The first regular annual meeting of EMSA was in 1944, in Chicago, and as Marko points out: "In the very beginning, members were mainly concerned with keeping the microscopes working.""Once the microscopes were working, the next challenge was preparing specimens, since neither microtomy nor embedding media had been developed," he adds.At the time, researchers including Canadian expat, Keith Porter, a pioneering electron microscopist and EMSA's only two-time President, were preparing air-dried whole-mount samples. Early pictures such as Porter's started a new field of study, which was ultimately named Cell Biology at a 1956 meeting at the NIH.By the mid-1960s, traditional biological TEM had come of age, after the development of improved fixation and staining, resin embedding, ultramicrotomy, and diamond knives by Porter, J. Luft, F. Sjöstrand, H. Fernández-Morán, and many others. Retrospective recognition of the contributions to cell biology by traditional electron microscopy came with the 1974 Nobel prize to Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, and George Palade. Beyond biologyInitially, biological applications dominated electron microscopy. However in 1956, the group of Sir Peter Hirsch at the Cavendish lab, Cambridge, recorded the first images of dislocations in metals.By the late 1970s, British metallurgist, Gareth Thomas, had set up the National Centre for Electron Microscopy at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, aiming for atomic resolution by the use a of million-volt TEM. And following the realization of aberration correction, applications in materials science really began to dominate electron microscopy.According to Marko, the principles of aberration correction were laid out in 1947 by Otto Scherzer, with critical theoretical development work carried out by his student Harald Rose. Max Haider, a student of Rose, went onto to apply this aberration History under the Mike Marko has been an electron microscopist for 44 years. A founding member of the HVEM lab, in 1976, and the NIH Biotechnological Resource, in 1981, he is currently a Research Scientist at the Wadsworth Center in Albany, NY. Here he is manager of the 3D-EM Facility which includes a single-platform FIB-SEM and a custom-made 300-kV phase-plate cryo-TEM. He leads two NIH-funded projects: cryo-focused-ion-beam (FIB) milling to prepare vitreously frozen specimens for high-resolution cryo-TEM, and phase-plate imaging to improve contrast of vitreously frozen specimens in the cryo-TEM.Just before the 75th anniversary meeting of the Microscopy Society of America, part of M&M2017, Microscopy and Analysis catches up with MSA Archivist and past-president, Professor Mike Marko, to reflect on the past, present and future of microscopyhistoric James Hillier and Alexander Zworykin with RCA's electron microscope, the EMB [RCA], main image, right

history focus27eueuMicroscopyandAnalysis | July/August 2017As part of the 75th anniversary celebration, the MSA have invited all living past presidents of MSA to join them and the majority will be in attendance. M&M 2017 will provide a unique opportunity for today's members to meet and celebrate past Society leaders whose efforts have made MSA the international leader in microscopy and microanalysis that it is today. MSA will also be marking its 75th anniversary with displays and slide shows of historical photos from different eras in the Society's history. Prominently featured will be the photo above, which depicts leaders in the new field of electron microscopy at the inaugural meeting in Chicago in 1942. Attendees will have the opportunity to pose for selfies with this photo as a backdrop.correction development, founding CEOS, which delivered the first commercial aberration-corrected TEM in the late 1990s. Early work was also carried out in the US by the group of Albert Crewe, followed by the work of Ondrej Krivanek's group, which also led to commercialization in the late 1990's, by his company, Nion."The first "high-resolution" electron microscopes had a resolution of around ten nanometres, or 100 Angströms, and by 1964, resolution improved to 4 Å," says Marko. "But we didn't reach sub-angström resolution until aberration correction was developed, which constituted a revolution in resolution". At the same time, the rise of super-resolution light microscopy was underway. Given this and the increasing diversity of microscopy and microanalysis techniques published and presented at Society meetings, come 1991, the organisation changed its name from the Electron Microscopy Society of America to the Microscopy Society of America.An eye on the futureIn recent years, MSA has continued to flourish, and right now, Marko is excited that the current President, Ian Anderson, has put top priority on welcoming more and more young researchers into leadership roles in the Society. Anderson has established a Student Council, and this year, for the first time, students are organising a pre-meeting congress.The MSA Archivist is also avidly watching what he describes as a convergence in resolution between materials science and biology. Largely thanks to the development of direct-electron detectors and sophisticated image-processing software, cryo-electron microscopy can be used to create near-atomic-resolution models of biological macromolecules.Crucially, these macromolecules models are comparable to structures determined by X-ray crystallography, but are obtained without the need for crystallization. These breakthroughs were underpinned by the pioneering work of Nobelist Aaron Klug and successors D.Caspar, D. DeRosier, J. the microscopeFrank, and many others."Even with dose-sensitive biological specimens, we're now getting very close to atomic resolution, and this is a major driver in the field of biology," says Marko. "We are a technology-based society, so researchers can come to our meetings to learn about this and other up-and-coming technologies relevant to their applications." "I always encourage researchers to come to the Meeting to learn about technology that is outside their application," he adds. "If they do this, they can learn how other researchers do things and how this might help themselves."left First series-produced commercial TEM, from Siemens Siemensbelow Founding meeting, 1942, Sherman Hotel, Chicago. Left to right: G. L. Clark (Meeting Chairman), James Hillier, O.S. Duffendack, L. A. Matheson, V. K. Zworykin