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Characterization of metal-carbon nanotube composites18euJuly/August 2017 | MicroscopyandAnalysisLetters, 2009. 95(7): p. 071907.17. Li, H., et al., Processing and characterization of nanostructured Cu-carbon nanotube composites. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 2009. 523(1–2): p. 60-64.18. Yang, W., Y. Feng, and W. Chu, Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methane to Carbon Nanotubes: Copper Promoted Effect of Ni/MgO Catalysts. Journal of Nanotechnology, 2014. 2014: p. 5.19. Che, G., et al., Chemical Vapor Deposition Based Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Using a Template Method. Chemistry of Materials, 1998. 10(1): p. 260-267.20. Kong, J., A.M. Cassell, and H. Dai, Chemical vapor deposition of methane for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Chemical Physics Letters, 1998. 292(4–6): p. 567-574.21. Stobinski, L., et al., Multiwall carbon nanotubes purification and oxidation by nitric acid studied by the FTIR and electron spectroscopy methods. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2010. 501(1): p. 77-84.22. Lal, M., et al., An alternative improved method for the homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrix for the fabrication of Cu/CNTs composites. Applied Nanoscience, 2013. 3(1): p. 29-35.©John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2017biographyHarshpreet Singh started his career by obtaining a Bachelor's degree in field of Mechanical Engineering. He completed his Master of Technology (by Research) in the field of Composite Materials and received a TEQIP Scholarship during his Master's studies. He came to New Zealand in 2015, after winning University of Auckland Doctoral Scholarship to pursue his PhD at University of Auckland, New Zealand and joined CACM. At the University of Auckland, his work focuses on the development of Metal matrix composites for automotive and aerospace applications. abstractMetal matrix composites (MMCs) combine the ductility of metal and the toughness of the reinforcement which makes it an excellent candidate material for advanced engineering applications. The unique features of MMCs like high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness per unit density results in improvement of the service performance. Cu has been extensively used as a matrix due to its superior thermal and electrical properties. In the present study multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were developed by using low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) process. The microstructure of the composites was analysed using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). X-ray diffraction of the various composites was done in order to determine the different phases in the sintered composites. Wear properties of the various composites was analysed using a ball-on-plate tribometer.acknowledgements I would like to thank the staff in the SEM and XRD laboratories at the National Institute of Technology-Rourkela, India. We thank everyone involved at the National Institute of Technology- Rourkela for their useful feedback and help, and the Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department of the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur for carrying out HRTEM. Corresponding author details Harshpreet Singh, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand, 314-390 Khyber Pass Road, Newmarket 1023 Auckland, NZMobile: +64-0223917811Email: and Analysis 31(4): 14-18 (EU), August 2017FIGure 10 (a) Wear Characteristic of Cu- MWCNT composites and FESEM images of the wear track of (b) Cu- 1 vol.% MWCNT (c) Cu- 2 vol.% MWCNT and (d) Cu- 5 vol.% MWCNTs composite BADC

ADVANCES IN RAMAN TECHNIQUES19euMicroscopyandAnalysis | July/August 2017INTRODUCTIONRaman scattering as a probe of vibrational transitions has made leaps and bounds since its discovery, and various schemes based on this phenomenon have been developed with great success.Applications range from basic scientific research, to medical and industrial instrumentation. Some schemes utilise linear Raman scattering, whilst others take advantage of high peak-power fields to probe nonlinear Raman responses.This article intends to provide a brief overview of the differences and benefits, together with the laser source requirements and the advancements in techniques enabled by recent developments in lasers. LINEAR RAMANThe advent of the laser in providing a high-intensity coherent light source has helped to make Raman scattering a useful method for spectroscopy by increasing signal levels of the spontaneous event to enable use of readily available detectors.The most widely used method to date is linear Raman, which takes advantage of commercial continuous-wave lasers. The choice of excitation wavelength depends on the sample used, where in general, a shorter wavelength would yield a higher efficiency yet suffers from higher scattering and may induce damage in biological samples within the UV region.A diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser with a wavelength between 473 nm and 1064 nm, a narrow bandwidth output of few tens of GHz or below 1 MHz if needed within the linewidth of vibrational transitions for high resolution, low noise (less than 0.02%) and excellent beam quality (fundamental transversal electromagnetic mode TEM00) provides optimised performance for the resolution of the Raman measurement needed.The wavelength is chosen based on the sample under investigation, with 532 nm being commonly used for the necessary virtual electronic transition. In the following section, four examples from different areas of Raman applications show the diverse applications of linear Raman and what advances have been achieved.An example of studying a real-world application, the successful control of food quality using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis, is described by Jernshøj et al.1. Examining the quality of meat and vegetables is discussed, together with the source specification, when constructing a system for conditions outside of a laboratory environment. For real-world applications, the laser source needs not only to work at the right output parameters, but also it necessitates a robust design making it portable and highly efficient for integration into instruments and being able to interface with operating software.The two next experiments benefit from the high resolution that a narrow linewidth laser source offers as well as its high beam quality.Laser requirements and advances for Raman techniquesAndreas IsemannLaser Quantum GmbH, 78467 Konstanz, GermanyFigure 1 An example of the RR microfluidic device counting of photosynthetic microorganisms. As the cells of the model strain Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 flow through the Raman detection area of the microfluidic device, RR spectra were acquired continuously about 27 times every second. The v1 RR band was used to differentiate 12 C- and 13 C-cells. The intensity of this band was plotted against the temporal axis and displayed in green and red for 12 C- and 13 C-cells, respectively. A part of the figure near 23.3 s was enlarged to show a 13 C- and 12 C-cell passed through the Raman detection area sequentially only about 0.1 s apart from each other; the untreated RR spectra of those two cells show a distinctive red shift of all of the carotenoids RR bands. Reprinted (adapted) with permission from Li et al2. Copyright (2012) American Chemical Society