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MICROSCOPY AND ANALYSISNOVEMBER 122011images and the bottom plasma-FIB imagesshow details of the bonding interface andcompressed spheres. 3D Test ChipThe 3D integrated reliability test chip shown inFigure 6 is a 3-level-stack with a modular lay-out designed to permit evaluation of assemblyprocesses between two initial layers and, sub-sequently, the effects of adding a third layer[6]. The PFIB can mill a cross section throughthe entire three layer stack showing criticaldetails of both upper and lower bondingregions and the complete TSV through themiddle layer.CONCLUSIONSBy combining high-speed milling and deposi-tion with precise control and high qualityimaging, the plasma focused ion beam pro-vides critically needed physical analysis for TSVand bonding processes that are essential tocurrent 3D integration schemes. At high beamcurrents, cross-sections with dimensions ofhundreds of micrometers can be completed inless than an hour, fast enough to provideeffective feedback on process performance. Atlow beam currents, the same system delivershigh resolution imaging for accurate structuralanalysis. The PFIB provides an effective, practical toolfor a variety of 3D integration applications,including failure analysis of bumps, wirebonds, TSVs, and stacked die; site specificremoval of package and other materials toenable failure analysis and fault isolation onburied die; circuit and package modificationsto test design changes without repeating thefabrication process or creating new masks;process monitoring and development at thepackage level; and defect analysis of packagedparts and MEMS devices.REFERENCES1.Smith, N. S., Skoczylas, W. P., Kellogg, S.M., Kinion, D.E.,Tesch, P.P., Sutherland, O., Aanesland, A., Boswell, R.W. HighBrightness Inductively Coupled Plasma Source for HighCurrent Focused Ion Beam Applications. J. Vac. Sci. Technol.B24(6):2902-2906, 2006.2.Kellogg, M., Schampers, R., Zhang, S.Y., Graupera, A.A.,Miller, T., Laur, W.D., Dirriwachter, A.B. High ThroughputSample Preparation and Analysis using an InductivelyCoupled Plasma (ICP) Focused Ion Beam Source. Microsc.Microanal. 16(Suppl 2):222-223, 2010.3.Kwakman, L., Franz, G., Taklo, M. M. V., Klumpp, A., Ramm,P. Characterization and Failure Analysis of 3D IntegratedSystems using a novel plasma-FIB system. Proc. InternationalConference on Frontiers of Characterization and Metrologyfor Nanoelectronics, Grenoble, France, 2011.4.Ramm, P. Method of making a three-dimensional integratedcircuit. US Patent 5,563,084; P. Ramm, A. Klumpp. Methodof vertically integrating microelectronic components. USPatent 6,548,391.5.Taklo, M. et al. Anisotropic Conductive Adhesive for Wafer-to-Wafer Bonding, Proceedings of 7th Intl Conference andExhibition on Device Packaging, March 2011.6.Ramm, P., Klumpp, A., Franz, G., Kwakman, L. FailureAnalysis and Reliability of 3D Integrated Systems. Proc.IMAPS Device Packaging Conf., Scottsdale, Arizona, 2011.©2011 John Wiley & Sons, LtdFigure 6: The high milling speed of PFIB permits cross-sections through the full three layer stack of the test chip, revealing both upper and lower bonding regionsand the entire TSV.Figure 5: Anisotropic conductive adhesives provide mechanical bonding and electrical conductivity. (a,b) Images show metal coated spheres before mixing withBCB (a), and a schematic of how TSVs can be electrically connected to pads on another wafer using BCB filled with such spheres (b). (c-f) The lower four images are a clockwise sequence of increasing magnification with the compressed metal coated spheres clearly visible in the twobottom images. fedabc

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